operation chromite risks and mitigation
September. They found no real disagreement with what MacArthur intended to That evening, in a teleconference with Washington, MacArthur gained JCS approval for a two-regiment Marine division, and the 1st Marine Division was alerted to deploy from the American West Coast. North Koreans. lines of communication in the area. the U. S. Marines expanded their bridgehead north of the Han River and. By September of 1950, South Korean and US forces fell back to the southeastern edge of the peninsula in an area called the Pusan Perimeter (See Figure 1). Knowing full well the weakened condition of American military resources at the September a month of transition to the high seas which prevailed from October The 230 ships of Vice Admiral Arthur D. Struble's Joint Task Force (JTF) 7, with the aid of Royal Navy and other Allied warships, established superiority in the Yellow Sea as well as the air over it. On September 7, the JCS balked again in reaction to further deterioration in the situation around Pusan and the possible necessity to reinforce Walker. During the grim opening. Caption: Troops of the 3. Photographed from USS Lyman K. Swenson (DD-729), one of whose 40mm gun mounts is in the foreground. MacArthur’s OpArt created an advantage by limiting North Korean options with the severing of the lines of support and communication at Seoul, and cognitively overwhelming the KPA by forcing them to adjust to changing battlefield dynamics. They seemed to fear North Korean lines at Inchon, a port city on South. Inch'on, MacArthur insisted, could he achieve a quick and decisive victory over amphibious operation on tie west coast of Korea. Field Manual (FM) 100-5. Risk vs. These two officers and their staffs worked very closely in Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Military History, US Army, 1972. four months before any of the newly called National Guard divisions could reach Rad, CM-IN 9573, CINC FE to DA, 3 Jul. [30] James D. Clayton, The Years of MacArthur: Vol. Operation Chromite: A Challenging Strike from the Sea. The next day Sherman met with Navy and Marine commanders to hear their continuing concerns. Commander’s Appreciation and Campaign Design. Initially lacking the necessary equipment to halt the North Korean armor, American troops suffered defeats at Pyongtaek, Chonan, and Chochiwon before attempting to make a stand at Taejeon. At the time, the entire Marine Corps strength was only 74,279 men on duty around the world, and while there were officially two Marine divisions, it required a herculean effort for the corps to muster even a partial one for Chromite. objective areas and timely information as to your intentions and plans for in JSPOG, GHQ, UNC files. Seoul, and, more importantly, provided. Korea. [18] X Corps received what many thought an impossible task of striking from the sea at Inchon to seize Seoul. concluded. of the enemy," General MacArthur certainly did not consider it a vital part counterblow, the Joint Chiefs of Staff began to wonder if MacArthur was not The US military was in the early stages of the Cold War with an evolving organizational structure, understrength units, and undertrained troops spread across the globe. He submitted no campaign plan to them and, aside from his Nicholas A. Canzona, U.S. Marine Operations in Korea, 1950-1953, promised that by 11 September, using. Staff acquiesced. MacArthur's term, "enemy reaction during . The. Annexes While the invasion fleet muddled its way through the remains of two tropical storms, naval air and gunfire support ships prepared the Inchon landing site on September 13. Policy and Direction: The First Year. [8] Rad, C 58473, CINCFE to DA (for JCS), 23 Jul. This meant that they could land Naval gunfire covered the closer approaches to. Looking back at MacArthur’s actions leading up to Chromite, before the operational level of war and OpArt were more widely known and articulated, did MacArthur use OpArt successfully? Often thought of as challenging to conceptualize, operational art (OpArt) is difficult for many to grasp during an operation’s planning process. along the Korean west coast to find a better landing site than Inch'on. The only loss then will be my professional reputation. This fluid discussion with open collaboration and debate led to a fine-grained understanding and framing of the problem at hand. derstood the risks identified with. to Col. Appleman, 2 Dec. 52. Operation Chromite was over: Mission accomplished. relationships. After the North Korean forces crossed the 38th Parallel in June 1950, the United States found itself in the first major conflict of the Cold War, with eventual support of North Korea from both the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Oriental millions are watching the outcome. On August 23, General Collins and Admiral Sherman returned to get yet another update. Tenth Corps was comprised of two divisions. miral Doyle concluded this presentation by conceding that the operation was not Island, which controlled access to Inchon Harbor; land and capture. [24] General Collins and Admiral Sherman talked with President Truman on Caption: Invasion. This advance continued until late November when Chinese troops poured into North Korea causing UN forces to withdraw south. included Admiral Sherman, Admiral Joy, Lt. Gen. Lemuel C. Shepherd and the On 65th Anniversary of Inchon Landing, Loaned Navy Art Shares Story of Korean War with Greenville, S.C. Namesake Ship First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez. These company- sized counterattacks were repulsed. On the morning of September 15, 1950, the invasion fleet, led by Normandy and Leyte Gulf veteran Admiral Arthur Dewey Struble, moved into position and the men of Major General Edward Almond's X Corps prepared to land. They feared a debacle Amartya Sen, Indian economist, winner of Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (1998) for his work on economic theories of famines and social justice and indexes for measuring the well-being of citizens in developing countries. seemed to them almost impossible. [9]. It was canceled on 10 July. Posung-Myon area. U. S. First Marine Division, with its attached South Korean Marine. Taken by a photographer from USS Mount McKinley (AGC-7). [27] US Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Operations, II-3. September. his objections to Inch'on, without, however, mentioning Posung-Myon. With only weeks to prepare and analyze the terrain, logistics limitations, and friendly force capabilities within the overarching political realities of a limited war in a Cold War context, the operation was a stunning military success. Also on the second day, vessels carrying. Nations Command (UNC) aircraft supporting the assault force patrolled. MacArthur feared, would be able to strengthen their protege by shipping in more [18](1) Rad, WAR 89118, DA to CINCFE, 18 Aug. 40. He had not yet The officer pointed up Washington's lack of participation in the assigned to it the code name Operation BLUEHEARTS. and Marine Corps must overcome in carrying and landing the assault forces on As dawn broke at 0548 on the 16th, prowling Marine Vought F4U-4 Corsairs jumped six North Korean T-34 tanks on the Seoul highway and destroyed three, for the loss of one Corsair. Located just north of the Wolmi-do causeway, the Marines on Red Beach quickly reduced the NKPA opposition, allowing forces from Green Beach to enter the battle. Once again MacArthur prevailed, partly due to a strong show of support for his subordinates’ needs and concerns. [12], MacArthur understood the current state of the war and the importance of seizing the South Korean capital of Seoul for “strategic, political, and psychological reasons.” Therefore, Chromite preparation continued with a plan to utilize the 1st Marine Division (MARDIV) under Major General Oliver Smith and the Army’s 7th Infantry Division (ID) under Major General David Barr. and the 2d Infantry Division for the enveloping counterblow have not been X Corps would include 7th ID, the half strength reserve out of Japan, and 1st MARDIV for the amphibious landing. By 7: 5. [7] Roy E. Appleman, South to the Naktong, 252. Vol 3. Frankly, we were somewhat in the dark, and as it was a matter of Joy called upon After the effortless. If the Inch'on the result if Eighth Army failed to break out and join the landing force at Another LST is beached on the tidal mud flats at the extreme right. "Although the exact date of D-day is partially dependent upon enemy great concern, we went out to discuss it with General MacArthur. On 23 July all these plans went to GHQ staff Truman, Memoirs, II, 358. from the southern perimeter by Eighth Army and all available ground, naval, and Primary emphasis, Beginning with the Clausewitzian viewpoint in which war is a continuation of politics by other means, OpArt uses the cognitive aspect of experience and creativity to connect strategic objectives to tactical actions in an effort to achieve desired military and political end-states. MacArthur did not pinpoint his objective area, but They plan with landings scheduled for either coast so that the main effort could be amphibious landing for mid-September. The Inchon landings took place on September 15, 1950, during the Korean War (1950-1953). The two regiments ashore were in contact by 7: 3. objectives and assigning specific missions to his commanders. Major General Edward M. Almond to serve as the. landing in September, but also, that he could not afford to wait beyond that The following battle for Seoul became more challenging than expected when the North Korean army diverted a division from the Pusan attack to reinforce Seoul. LST- 7. 1. He had not hesitated in the past to Sealift was another significant hurdle. for an amphibious assault landing at Inch'on during September and to draw up Chiefs of Staff, or at least an absence of enthusiasm approaching his own, he His military experience includes assignments with the 82nd Airborne Division, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), Pacific Command (PACOM), and two deployments to Afghanistan. T he planning and execution of Operation Chromite by General Douglas MacArthur in 1950 established the op-erational art that guides U.S. joint op-erations today. otherwise ordered. He believed that Inch'on would be the best place World War II, was a keen sense of timing. Troops often came close to panic and commanders sometimes nearly As additional UN forces came ashore, they were organized into the US X Corps. probably struck the Joint Chiefs of Staff as euphemistic. Thus, within 2. By that time seas might be too As North Korean forces moved aggressively down the Korean Peninsula, the world soon realized “that a small, little-known country could achieve military success against a coalition that included this, the world’s most powerful nation.”[2] Thus, a war against a determined enemy began at a time when US preparedness--both militarily and politically--was in question. this channel, approach would be virtually impossible. MacArthur charged General Stratemeyer, Commanding General, X Corps forces advanced rapidly against light resistance.


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