sierra madre occidental estados
[68] On the east slope of the mountain, daytime upslope winds flow to the crest, where the flow joins westerly winds. This forest and canyon land provided a place for a variety of indigenous people to live, until Spanish settlers with associated mestizos came into the area to found towns for the silver mines in the area. [111], After leaving San Carlos in the fall of 1881, Geronimo and other Apache moved to the mountains,[118] and became known as the Nednai, sometimes referred to as the "Pinery Apache" or "Bronco Apache". [44], South of the Cortes and Carborca Terranes is the San José de García Terrane, which is a combination of Cretaceous arc volcanics and volcaniclastics, which may be thrusting over the Cortes terrane. [51] The region has a general strike from just west of north to just south of east. [39] The lower of these groups is a series of volcanic rocks formed by lava flows. [43], There are two faults dividing the Sierra Madre from the central Mexican Plateau. [33] The Bolaños River valley of Jalisco is populated with mining communities, such as San Martín de Bolaños, which has a population of around 3,000. [66] Acidic soils may have lower calcium content, leading to lower plant soil quality. Monsoon season is the largest of these effects, with leaf buds following only a few months after the rains begin. The bedrock is covered by the clay rich soils, except in eroded areas, where water carries away deposits leaving a stony surface. [63] Some also occur as epithermal deposits. [55] The first was a continuation of the Oligocene flare-up, which lasted through the early Miocene. [50] The igneous series are made up of formations of plutonic and volcanic rock, which would later be exposed. Annual differences in regional climate are associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation with El Niño years leading to a wetter climate. The range extends from northern Sonora state near the Mexico-U.S. border at Arizona, southeastwards to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and Sierra Madre del Sur ranges. The dominant plants vary across the range, and the habitat that they present varies from scattered woodland to both deciduous and coniferous forest. Su anchura en promedio es de 150 km, con alturas de hasta 3000 metros sobre el ni… Animals typically associated with arid and mountainous habitats share the mountains with species associated with habitats further south. [126] The raids subsided by 1919, and Villa returned peacefully to the foothills. Su anchura en promedio es de 150 km, con alturas de hasta 3000 metros sobre el nivel del mar.[3]​. [46], Gold and silver deposits most commonly occur in the altered andesites of the early volcanics,[51] typically these deposits are between 30 and 50 million years old. Rivers cut valleys into the plateau, following folds in the rocks. [21] These mountains supply 90% of the water used for irrigation within the watershed. Other snakes and frogs live in the mountains, and many species live in the western slopes. [75] The humidity of the range is also influenced by the same seasonal changes as rainfall. [92], Birds frequent the mountains, some as a migratory path and others as native species. [3] These mountains are generally considered to be part of the much larger American cordillera, the mountains extending from Alaska down to these across western North America. [117] After the Apache faced heightened resistance to raiding from the Spanish in Chihuahuan, they moved down to the Sierra Madre in 1794. [68] The high pressure begins to break down and move south during September or October; however, the breakdown is usually at a slower pace than the movement north. [62] These are believed to be caused by later intrusions into the early flows. Oak forests are the predominant plant life, and extend into the lowland deserts. [118] By 1800, raiding had essentially ended. [19] The Río Grande de Santiago has also been dammed, including the Aguamilpa Dam begun in 1991[23] and the El Cajón Dam (Mexico) upstream from it. [58] These faults are commonly covered by alluvium and basalt, making them difficult to discern, but can be found in certain fault blocks. [111], A new colonial official, José de Gálvez, came to New Spain and established new laws that caused a boom in silver mining activity in the 1770s. Flowering season occurs in the months preceding the summer monsoon. The Sierra Madre Occidental is a major mountain range system of the North American Cordillera, that runs northwest–southeast through northwestern and western Mexico, and along the Gulf of California. [99] Basaseachic Falls National Park is a national park in the mountains containing the highest waterfalls in the country. The Mogollon culture has been described in the northern foothills. [116] In 1767, Jesuits were expelled from New Spain, ending the mission program. Summer temperatures maintain a constant level. These events have also been linked to the subduction of the Farallon Plate. [69] Also during the day, relative humidity drops and cloud levels rise as temperatures rise. [1] To the east, from the Spanish oriental meaning "eastern" in English, the Sierra Madre Oriental range or "Eastern Mother Mountains" runs generally parallel to the Sierra Madre Occidental along eastern Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico. Elle débute à 50 km au sud de la frontière des États-Unis, se prolonge sur 1 250 km à travers les États mexicains de Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Durango, Zacatecas, Nayarit et une partie de Jalisco puis rejoint la cordillère néovolcanique après le fleuve Santiago. [103], Archaic cultures are known to have inhabited the Sierra Madre along with the rest of the surrounding lands, but little is known of the culture, although it does vary between the northern and southern extremes of the range. Also, some gold occurs along with copper in Cenozoic iron-oxide skarn and replacement deposits along the Pacific. [10] However, Cerro Barajas, at 26°24′N 106°5′W / 26.400°N 106.083°W / 26.400; -106.083, may be as high as 3,300 m (10,800 ft)[11] although other sources give 3,170 m (10,400 ft) as the elevation. [83], The mountains are often a corridor for species allowing more diversity in the area, by combining species from different regions. Many of these are thought to be hydrothermal deposits[64] To the east of these units is a belt of more mercury deposits, followed by another belt of manganese deposits, although these deposits are mostly limited to Chihuahua and Hidalgo.

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