why are abyssal plains relatively rare in the pacific
They found that about 98% of the specimens belonged to the amphipod superfamily Lysianassoidea, and 2% to the isopod family Cirolanidae. While the oil gusher involved in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico originates from a wellhead only 1500 meters below the ocean surface,[84] it nevertheless illustrates the kind of environmental disaster that can result from mishaps related to offshore drilling for oil and gas. Population densities are low owing to a harsh environment and scarcity of food. Some investigators feel that biological productivity in overlying waters control the accretion of metals. [6][7] In the clearest ocean water, the euphotic zone may extend to a depth of about 150 metres,[6] or rarely, up to 200 metres. The roughness of this topography is a function of the rate at which the mid-ocean ridge is spreading (the spreading rate). Typical values for fast-spreading ridges are greater than 100 mm/yr, while slow-spreading ridges are typically less than 20 mm/yr. Life forms which inhabit the aphotic zone are often capable of movement upwards through the water column into the photic zone for feeding. A rare but important terrain feature found in the abyssal and hadal zones is the hydrothermal vent. Nearly all life forms in the ocean depend on the photosynthetic activities of phytoplankton and other marine plants to convert carbon dioxide into organic carbon, which is the basic building block of organic matter. [1][70] In 2000, scientists of the Diversity of the deep Atlantic benthos (DIVA 1) expedition (cruise M48/1 of the German research vessel RV Meteor III) discovered and collected three new species of the Asellota suborder of benthic isopods from the abyssal plains of the Angola Basin in the South Atlantic Ocean. By Oishimaya Sen Nag on April 25 2017 in Environment. nov.: a new foraminiferan species (Protista) from the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, Northeast Atlantic", "Results of the DIVA-1 expedition of RV "Meteor" (Cruise M48:1): Three new species of Munnopsidae Sars, 1864 from abyssal depths of the Angola Basin (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellota)", "A new species of Parabradya Lang, 1944 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Ectinosomatidae) from the abyssal plain of the Angola Basin", "Biodiversity, species ranges, and gene flow in the abyssal Pacific nodule province: predicting and managing the impacts of deep seabed mining", "Deep-sea Ecosystems Affected By Climate Change", Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis, North West Shelf Operational Oceanographic System, Jason-2 (Ocean Surface Topography Mission), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Abyssal_plain&oldid=980805430, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from December 2013, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, water temperature may reach as high as 464 °C (867 °F) near, ambient water temperature increases below 4000 metres due to, This page was last edited on 28 September 2020, at 15:30. [82] Most of the organic flux arrives as an attenuated rain of small particles (typically, only 0.5–2% of net primary production in the euphotic zone), which decreases inversely with water depth. In 2008, sustained exit temperatures of up to 407 °C were recorded at one of these vents, with a peak recorded temperature of up to 464 °C. [26] At the consumption edge of the plate (the oceanic trench), the oceanic lithosphere has thermally contracted to become quite dense, and it sinks under its own weight in the process of subduction. Submarine canyons originate either within continental slopes or on a continental shelf. [25] Consumption or destruction of the oceanic lithosphere occurs at oceanic trenches (a type of convergent boundary, also known as a destructive plate boundary) by a process known as subduction. This allowed researchers to draw accurate and detailed maps of large areas of the ocean floor. This, the deepest oceanic zone, extends from a depth of 6000 metres down to approximately 11000 metres. There are an estimated 4,000 species of living foraminifera. First is the bathyal zone, extending from a depth of 1000 metres down to 3000 metres, with water temperature decreasing from 12 °C (54 °F) to 4 °C (39 °F) as depth increases.

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